Synthesis of Heteroleptic Redox-active and Spin-crossover Complexes
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The following research regarding heteroleptic redox-active complexes with the potential for spin-crossover is synthetic in nature. The intent behind incorporating the Schiff base ligand N-(8-quinolyl)salicylaldimine with some redox-active species into a mixed ligand complex featuring a d4-d7 metal ion center was to prime the material for spin-crossover based on strong intermolecular interactions that would enhance cooperativity of the system. Single component systems that display spin-crossover behaviour paired with other physical properties like electrical conductivity hold significance in the field of multifunctional materials, of which there are few examples that feature mixed ligand systems. Information describing this type of chemistry and the magnetic interactions that govern these characteristics is introduced in the first chapter of this work. The synthetic strategies toward mixed ligand complexes in the form of [(Qsal)Fe(RAL)]+X- and [(Qsal)Co(RAL)]+X- have been realized from the use of mononuclear [(Qsal)FeCl2(CH3OH)] and [(Qsal)Co(OAc)]+OAc- species, respectively. The redox-active ligand (RAL) component is an arylazo ligand like 10-(8-quinolylazo)-9-phenanthrol (Qapl) or 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-phenanthrol (Papl), which possess a low-lying π* MO that makes them susceptible to multi-step reductions that give rise to radical intermediates. Heteroleptic complexes that were synthesized and isolated like [(Qsal)Fe(Qapl)]+BPh4-, [(Cl-Qsal)Fe(Qapl)]+BPh4-- and homoleptic [Fe(Qapl)2]+BPh4- were diffracted and measured several intermolecular π-π contacts of distances typically between 3.5-3.7 Å, often between the phenanthrene rings of adjacent Qapl ligands. Complexes In the form of [(Qsal)Fe(Qapl)]+X (X= BPh4- or SCN-) showed early onset of spin transition in solution usually beyond 298 K. These complexes were overly reduced in the glovebox which resulted in their deterioration, presumably from the cleavage of the RAL azo bond. The framework developed for the heteroleptic Fe3+ coordination chemistry was applied to cobalt, with some amendments, and afforded several heterleoptic Co3+ complexes using Qsal with the arylazo ligands Qapl and Papl. The heteroleptic cobalt complexes presented here were found to be LS Co3+ which is diamagnetic. However, there is potential under inert atmosphere to produce Co2+ and possibly a phenoxyl radical species with redox-active valence tautomers.